Vascular Surgery: Glossary of Terms
Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An aneurysm of the aorta
that occurs below the renal arteries.
ABI: Ankle brachial-index measurement. A non-invasive
method for testing for peripheral arterial disease through the
use of a Doppler probe and a blood pressure cuff on both the
arms and ankles.
Amputation: Surgical removal of a limb or portion of a
limb. Above knee, below knee, or partial foot are all varieties.
Aneurysm: Abnormal weakening of the wall of an artery
causing a ballooning appearance, enlarging to over
twice normal size.
Angiogram: See Arteriogram.
Angioplasty (balloon): A procedure that widens arteries
narrowed by arterial disease. A catheter with a deflated balloon
is threaded through the narrowed artery to the narrowed part
and then inflated to break the plaque and expand the artery.
Antiplatelet: Medication, including aspirin and newer
agents used to prevent clumping together of platelets, one of
the first things to occur in artery clotting.
Aorta: Main blood vessel in the chest and abdomen that
transports blood from the heart.
Aortic bypass: A vein or plastic tube is sewn in place
to redirect blood flow around a diseased part of the aorta.
Aortic occlusive disease: Development of atherosclerosis
within the abdominal aorta with sufficient plaque build up to
cause significant blockage of arterial blood flow to the abdomen
Aortic stent grafting: The insertion of a fabric graft through a blood
vessel in the groin to the aorta. This is placed inside the aneurysm and
the blood will flow through it, relieving the aneurysm of pressure.
Aortic surgery: Cutting the abdomen open to repair aneurysms or occlusive
Arteriogram: An x-ray used to determine specific arterial blockages
in the body, providing a road map of the arteries. The procedure involves
inserting a small catheter into the artery that injects dye. Also called
Arteriovenous fistula: A direct surgical connection of
a vein to an artery, usually in the arm, used for hemodialysis.
Arteriovenous graft: Connection of a vein to an artery using a man-made
tube tunneled under the skin, used for hemodialysis.
Artery: A pipeline (blood vessel) carrying oxygen-rich blood from
the heart to the rest of the body. When diseased, the organ supplied may
become damaged due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. See Ischemia.
Atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis: From the Greek words athero (gruel
or paste) and sclerosis (hardness). The process within the arteries where
deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, calcium or fibrin are built up
in the inner lining (called plaques). A normal consequence of aging where
the arterial walls gradually thicken and arterial fibers decline. The arteries
Blood pressure: The force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls.
Blue toe syndrome: The result of a blood clot that lodges in the small arteries
of the toes.
Buergers disease: An inflammation of medium and small arteries in the
arms and legs, most commonly in smokers.
Calcified vessels: When an artery becomes hardened from
calcium deposits in the wall. Often seen in diabetes. Affects
the ability to make accurate pressure measurements in the legs.
Carotid artery: The carotid artery
is the major artery providing blood flow to the brain from the heart.
It is located in the front of the neck. Carotid artery disease may
develop when sufficient plaque development builds up in the neck. This
can break free from the artery (embolism) and travel upstream to the
brain, potentially causing a stroke.
Catheter: A tiny flexible tube inserted in a blood vessel
to inject dye, assist with the removal of a blood clot, or inject
Claudication: Occurs because a blocked artery is interfering
with the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can reach the muscles
in one or both of the arms or legs, resulting in cramps or fatigue
Collateral circulation: The slow development of smaller
peripheral arteries to allow some blood flow around the narrowed/blocked
area of an artery. This occurs as an adaptation when an artery
is slowly blocked with plaque over time.
Deep vein thrombosis: Clotting within the vein caused from an injury,
immobility or abnormal clotting factors.
Diabetes mellitus: A metabolic disorder in which the body does not
produce insulin (type 1) or when the body does not make enough or cannot
properly use insulin (type 2).
Diabetic foot ulcer: A painless ulcer that usually develops on the bottom
of the foot in diabetics caused by an injury and worsened from lack of normal
Diabetic neuropathy: A disease of the nerves in the hands and feet
of people with diabetes that causes altered feelings of pain, heat or cold,
often diminishing normal sensation.
Dialysis catheters: Plastic tubing placed into a vein in the neck
for hemodialysis, usually temporarily until access has been surgically created.
Digital gangrene: Sores or ulcers can develop on the fingertips of the
hand related to loss of blood flow or tissue injury. The presence of digital
gangrene may imply several serious medical disorders.
Doppler: A diagnostic tool that uses low intensity ultrasound to visualize
and detect blood flow velocity in arteries or veins. Duplex is a diagnostic
tool that combines Doppler and ultrasound.
Endarterectomy: The removal of plaque from the inner
wall of a diseased artery by surgery.
Endograft: A graft placed inside the blood vessel to treat aneurysms.
Endovascular surgery: Alternative treatment to open a blood vessel, usually
False aneurysm: An injury to the layers of the artery that allows
blood to leak outside of the vessel and is held by the surrounding tissues.
Femoral artery: The large artery in the leg which extends from hip
to knee. Often the bypass grafts start at this point.
Gangrene: Tissue death caused by poor blood flow. It
is usually black in color, often with a foul odor.
Grafts: A surgical technique using man-made material or vein
to re-route blood flow.
Hemodialysis: Filters blood using a man-made filter
attached to a machine. Blood travels from your body, is cleansed
by the machine, then returned to your body.
Homocysteine: An amino acid in the blood. Elevated plasma levels
may lead to increased risks of PAD.
Hypertension: When the pressure in the arteries is consistently
above the normal range, leading to increased risk of stroke or
heart attack. Also known as high blood pressure.
Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas essential
for the bodys use of sugars.
Intermittent claudication: Symptoms that occur when the leg
muscles do not receive the oxygen-rich blood required during exercise,
thus causing cramping in the hips, thighs or calves.
Ischemia: An organ (heart, brain, kidneys, or foot, for example)
that is not getting adequate blood flow and lacks vital oxygen and
nutrients, preventing normal function.
Leg bypass: A vein or plastic tube is sewn in place
to redirect the blood flow around a diseased portion of a blood
vessel in the leg.
Leg ulcers: Open areas that can occur when blood flow is impaired
causing skin breakdown. Arterial ulcers usually affect the toes and
feet. Venous ulcers usually occur around the ankles and up to the knees.
Lipids: Another term for fats that can be broken down into fatty acids.
Lipoproteins: Proteins that transport cholesterol and other fats to
and from cells. LDL is the subtype most dangerous for peripheral arterial
disease. HDL is beneficial in prevention.
Lymphedema: Swelling that occurs as a result of blockage
within the lymphatic vessels of the limbs. There are multiple
causes of lymphedema. Compression is the usual mainstay of therapy.
Mesenteric ischemia: Decrease in blood flow to the small
bowel and colon. Symptoms may include sudden abdominal pain,
abdominal distention, blood in your stool, vomiting or diarrhea.
Chronic changes can include weight loss and fear of eating.
Noninvasive: Medical procedures or exams which do not
involve needles, dye or x-ray to diagnose arterial diseases.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): A common disorder
that occurs in the artery segments of the circulatory system
(legs, pelvis, neck, brain). The artery wall linings slowly
become narrowed by irregular clots formed due to build up of
cholesterol or plaque. It has major implications on a patients
life due to association with blockages in the heart and brain
with potential for death from heart attack and stroke.
Peritoneal dialysis: Uses the natural lining of the abdomen.
A fluid is placed into your abdomen through a peritoneal dialysis
catheter and the lining helps to clean the blood.
Plaque: The build up material on the inner lining of an artery made up of
cholesterol and fatty substances.
Post phlebitic syndrome: A combination of leg pain, infection of the
skin, hardening of the skin with a dark coloring, and open areas caused by
abnormal pressure in the veins.
Pulmonary embolism: On the vein side of the circulation, a blood clot which
has broken free of its attachment site and traveled to the heart and lungs
(embolism). This may result in immediate cardiac arrest.
Raynauds syndrome: A condition where an exaggerated
response to temperature can produce extreme blanching of the
hands or feet in response to an environmental or systemic stress.
Renal vascular disease: Atherosclerotic plaque build up within
the arteries leading to the kidneys that may produce a severe increase
in blood pressure and make treatment with blood pressure medicines
Rest pain: The onset of constant leg pain that occurs
at rest. This may be due to severe lack of blood flow to the
Revascularization: Surgical procedures to restore blood flow within the
Ruptured aneurysm: When the enlarged vessel leaks, typically in the
Signs of infection: Redness, warmth, tenderness, foul
smelling drainage, or elevated temperature.
Stents: Wire mesh tubes that are surgically placed within the
artery (recently cleared through angioplasty) via a catheter threaded
through the artery. It is opened to form a rigid support to hold the
clogged artery open to potentially prevent recurrent narrowing.
Stroke: When blood flow to a part
of the brain is stopped, even briefly. Symptoms can be numbness
or weakness of the arms or legs, sudden changes in vision or
loss of vision in one eye, slurring of words, or facial droop.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm: An aneurysm of the portion
of the aorta coming from the heart to the diaphragm.
Thoracic outlet syndrome: A change in the sensation,
color, and/or movement of an arm caused by pressure on nerves
and blood vessels in the upper chest area. Symptoms may include
pain, swelling, numbness and/or weakness associated with positioning
of the arms. Diagnostic testing may include x-ray of the chest
and neck, and physical evaluation of the arms in different positions.
Management of this disease may include exercises, trigger point
injections or surgery.
Thrombolysis: A radiology procedure that uses medication
to help dissolve blood clots in the arterial or venous system.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA): A brief
disturbance in vision described as blurring or a
curtain over the eye that clears in several seconds to
minutes. This is typically caused by plaque dislodgment.
Triglycerides: The chemical form in which most fats exist
Ultrasonic duplex scanning: The diagnostic test for
PAD that produces images of arteries or veins on a screen via
the use of ultrasound equipment. This test is used to locate
blocked arteries or measure their size.
Varicose veins: Enlarged superficial veins of the legs,
which can produce heaviness, throbbing, or aching and may present
an unsightly cosmetic appearance.
Vascular medicine: A branch of medicine that deals primarily
in medical treatment of vascular diseases.
Vein stripping: A surgical procedure that involves removing
the diseased vein through several small incisions.
Veins: Blood vessels that carry the blood from the body
back to the heart.
Venous insufficiency: Deterioration of valve function
within the veins of the legs, causing blood pooling in and around
the ankle. This leads to heaviness of the leg, swelling and occasionally
Vertebral artery: An artery in the back of the neck providing
additional blood flow to the brain. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
may develop when these blood vessels are significantly blocked
due to atherosclerosis or plaque formation. The symptoms that
develop from this insufficient blood flow may mimic a stroke.
Vessels: The tube-like structures in the circulatory system
that are responsible for circulating blood within the body. The
three kinds of vessels are arteries, veins and lymphatics. Capillaries
are the microscopic structures that connect arteries and veins
at the tissues.